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                     THE PASSION OF JOAN OF ARC

                            Written by

                Carl Theodor Dreyer & Joseph Delteil

                           Translated by

                        Oliver Stallybrass

                 At the Bibliothèque Nationale in
                 Paris it is possible to see one of
                 the most famous documents in the
                 history of the world - the official
                 record of the trial of Joan of Arc.

    The Bibliothèque Nationale's original record of the trial of
    Joan of Arc is shown on the screen. An invisible hand turns
    over the manuscript pages.

                 ... If you turn over the pages,
                 yellow with age, which contain the
                 account of her martyrdom ...

    Page after page is shown of this unique document with its
    lines as straight as arrows, its marginal annotations, and
    the naïve miniature drawings for which the notaries have
    found time and space.

                 ... you will find Joan herself ...
                 not the military genius who
                 inflicted on the enemy defeat after
                 defeat, but a simple and natural
                 young girl ... who died for her

    The last pages are turned. Then the picture disappears and
    gives way to the first scene of the film, which shows

1   The prison, where Joan is sitting, praying. The flagstones,
    the floor in Joan's cell. We see two straws and a hand,
    Joan's hand, which lays the straws on the floor in the form
    of a cross.

2   Scenes from the church are shown: the chalice is brought out.

3   In the prison we see Joan kneeling before   her straw cross -
    this most fragile and exalted of crosses.   She prays in
    ecstatic joy, at one moment bending right   forward so that her
    forehead touches the flagstones, the next   moment kneeling
    with her hands folded and her eyes raised   to heaven as if she
    saw beings visible only to her. From time   to time she mutters
    a short prayer.


    A young monk makes his way through rows of kneeling priests.
    He is the Usher Massieu, who is on his way to summon Joan and
    conduct her to her first examination.


    Joan in front of her little cross. Suddenly the two straws
    spin round in a mysterious gust of wind. What is it?

    Joan sits for a moment, overcome with astonishment, then puts
    the straws back in the form of a cross. Again a hostile power
    attacks this cross and scatters it over the flagstones. Joan
    doesn't know what to believe. Can it be one of her voices? A
    divine intervention? Once again she replaces the cross. Then
    there is a roar of laughter from the door behind her. Joan
    turns and sees three soldiers, who have been standing in the
    half-open door, blowing at her straw cross through a long

    Enter the soldiers. They are tormentors and bullies of the
    worst kind. They continue to jeer at her.

6   Now the jailer appears, an elderly man, followed by a
    blacksmith. Joan turns in terror and looks up at them. When
    she sees the chains in the blacksmith's hands, her eyes fill
    with tears, and she shrinks back a step. The jailer seizes
    her by the foot, and the blacksmith puts the ankle-chains on

7   While he is thus occupied, Massieu enters. He is an engaging
    young man of twenty-five, healthy, vivacious and open; he
    radiates youth, health and life. He remains standing by the
    door until the others have left the cell. The jailer, who
    goes out last, certifies that the prisoner is the Maid. The
    door closes behind the jailer. And now that Massieu is alone
    with this woman, whom he has heard described as a dangerous
    witch and an object of fear - he is afraid. He prays
    inaudibly and crosses himself. He has brought with him a
    small stoup and aspergillum, and as he stands by the door he
    sprinkles Joan eagerly with holy water. Joan, who has dragged
    herself over to the boards which serve as her bed, looks at
    him in gay surprise, and with a slight smile says:

                 Come a little nearer, I shan't fly

    Massieu, astonished, approaches her, asks if she is Joan, the
    Maid, and when she confirms this begins to read the summons:

                 ... that you summon the aforesaid
                 Joan, commonly called the Maid, to
                 appear before us ...

    Joan declares herself ready to follow him. Massieu calls for
    the jailer. They lead Joan out.*


    Bishop Cauchon takes the chair for the trial. To either side
    of him sit the Inquisitor, Lemaître, and Jean d'Estivet, who
    is to present the case against Joan.

     These three men are surrounded by the other forty-one
     clerics, all men of learning, thoroughly versed in the art of
     dragging confessions out of accused persons.

     A special table is reserved for the notaries.

     Cauchon gives orders for the accused to be brought in.

9    Every face turns towards the entrance. They all see Joan for
     the first time. It is so quiet in the chapel that you can
     hear the grating noise of the chains round Joan's ankles.

10   Joan comes forward. Through the pointed, colored windows the
     sunlight falls obliquely into the room in long shafts.
     Suddenly Joan finds herself in the middle of one of these
     shafts and stops for a moment. She becomes aware that every
     eye is turned towards her; she sees that they are hard, cold
     and uncomprehending. For a few seconds it seems as if she is
     going to collapse, overcome by the cold, remorseless
     atmosphere. On one side a completely human, simple, young
     country girl; on the other the flower of this century's
     talents, learned doctors, the fine fruits of the university,
     every prodigy in Christendom ... the instruments of reason -
     and of death. The personification on one side of innocence,
     on the other of magnificence. The terrible, relentless way in
     which they look at this girl in man's clothes, all these
     bishops, all these ascetics and members of orders with their
     newly cropped tonsures! These learned gentlemen regard her
     man's shoes and short hair as something loathsome and
     indecent. They believe as one man that it will be all easy
     matter to get the upper hand over this child.

11   With a harsh movement Cauchon orders Joan over to the seat
     for the accused.

12   She remains standing for a moment, drooping under the heavy
     burden of her chains. Then she sits down. Her face is pale
     and marked with grief and suffering. She lets her eyes wander
     over these rows of men in clerical garb - alone and unaided
     she must battle with them to save her name and her life. She
     leans towards Massieu and says a few quiet words to him as if
     to remind him of some promise. Massieu says to Cauchon:

               The accused begs humbly for leave
               to go to confession ...

     The bishop, who is engaged in thumbing through some documents
     which one of the prelates, Loiseleur, has just brought him,
     discusses the request briefly with the Inquisitor, and
     replies that he is obliged to deny her this favor because of
     her indecent dress.

13   Then he opens the session and orders Joan to take the oath.
     With a gesture he indicates that the Bible is to be fetched
     and placed in front of Joan. She kneels, folds her hands over
     the book and recites the oath:

               I swear by the Holy Gospels to
               speak the truth, the whole truth
               and nothing but the truth,
               concerning the mission which has
               been entrusted to me by the King of

14   There is a hush in the room. At this moment, when everything
     is quiet, a small door opens, giving direct access to the
     castle from the chapel. It is Warwick, the English governor
     and general, who enters. The respect shown to the new arrival
     by some of the soldiers in his vicinity suggests that he is a
     person of some importance. As the Commander-in-Chief of the
     English army of occupation he is the real, though
     unrecognized, driving force behind the trial. He has come for
     the purpose of speeding things up, but he keeps in the
     background - like an accomplished butler who supervises from
     a distance and sees that everything is proceeding smoothly.
     For the moment he remains standing just inside the door;
     presently he comes further forward and is hidden by columns.
     At one point we see him in conversation with Loiseleur.

15   Joan has sat down again, and the hearing begins. Cauchon asks
     Joan her name. She answers:

               At home I am called Jeannette ...
               Here they call me Joan!

16   Cauchon asks her age. Joan thinks and counts on her fingers:

               Nineteen ... I think.

17   Cauchon, after smiling to his neighbor, asks:

               Can you say Our Father?

     Joan nods. Scenes from her childhood come rushing into her
     memory. Her eyes are moist with tears, and when Cauchon asks:

               Who taught it to you?

     Joan can hardly produce a word, for her sobs are lying like a
     knot in her throat. She answers so softly that hardly anybody
     can hear:

               My Mother ...

18   The Promoter, Jean d'Estivet, whispers to Cauchon:

               Tell her to say the Our Father! If
               she refuses, it will be evidence of
               her being possessed by the Devil.

     Cauchon nods and tells Joan to say the Our Father. She
     refuses. Jean d'Estivet and Cauchon exchange glances. Cauchon
     tells her urgently to do his bidding, but Joan refuses again,
     for she is afraid that memories of her mother and her home in
     Domrémy are going to overwhelm her.

     Cauchon puts further pressure on her: she is to repeat the
     Our Father immediately and unconditionally. She declines to
     do so.

19   Cauchon rebukes her for this stubbornness and lets the
     examining judge take over the interrogation. The latter makes
     an inclination of the head and asks:

               You say that you are sent by God?

     Joan confirms this with a nod and adds:

               To save France!

     The judges burst out laughing. Joan's eyes are raised to
     heaven, as if it was heaven that gave her courage and found
     the right words for her. Her expression, which is filled with
     the glory of a heavenly vision, is almost unearthly as she

               That is why I was born!

     More contemptuous laughter from the judges. The examining
     judge confers with the other judges. Their expressions show
     that they are setting a new trap for Joan.

20   Finally he says:

               So you believe that God hates the

     Joan does not immediately understand the question, and the
     examining judge has to repeat it. Then Joan gives one of her
     brilliant, inspired answers:

               I know not whether God loves or
               hates the English ...

21   Disappointment on the judges' faces. Joan continues, with a
     strength which suddenly reveals a new side of her character,
     and turning towards the English soldiers:

               But I know for certain that the
               English will all be driven out of
               France ...

     Commotion and protests among the soldiers: why should Joan be
     allowed to insult England? But Joan continues inflexibly:

               ... except for those who are going
               to die here!

     The soldiers are furious. They can no longer contain
     themselves. One of them makes a movement towards the accused.
     Massieu leaps to her defense. But Cauchon intervenes and
     orders silence; he has to use all his authority to restore
     order among the judges. The hearing continues.

22   Cauchon asks:

               You have told how Saint Michael
               appeared to you ... how did you
               greet him?

     Joan explains that she has always greeted Saint Michael in
     the way one should greet a saint. One of the judges tells her
     to show how she greeted Saint Michael.

23   With touching simplicity Joan kneels, goes through the motion
     of taking off her cap, and bows reverently before the
     imagined saint. She gets up again, while the judges talk

24   Cauchon continues:

               In what form did he reveal himself?

     Joan does not immediately grasp the question. Half the judges
     shout to one another.

     Hundreds of questions fly across the room: Did he have wings?
     Was his head like an ordinary man's? Was he wearing a crown?
     Under this deluge of questions Joan makes a movement as if to
     say that she cannot answer them all at once.

25   Finally, when quiet is more or less restored, Cauchon
     formulates his question more carefully:

               What was Saint Michael wearing?

     But Joan does not answer.

26   An elderly canon is seen to rise, go over to the bishop and
     whisper something in his ear. There is a suggestion of
     pruriency about this man. The bishop nods and turns to Joan:

               How can you know whether the person
               you saw was a man or a woman?

     Joan is silent. She realizes that another trap is being laid
     for her.

27   Cauchon is reluctant to give up the ground he has won. He
     asks a new question:

               Was he naked?

     Every ear strains to hear the reply, for now Joan has to
     answer. And again she produces one of her brilliant, careful

               Do you not believe that God would
               have clothes for him?

28   Cauchon realizes that his stratagem has failed, but
     nevertheless he pursues the matter further:

               Did he have any hair on his head?

     But Joan, who now feels that she is on firm ground, smiles
     and answers with artless inspiration:

               Why should he have had it cut off?

29   Cauchon sees that he will get nowhere with Joan by this
     method. He confers with those sitting nearest him and then
     gives way to the examining judge, who begins to question Joan
     about her dress:

               Why are you wearing men's clothes?

     Joan refuses several times to answer and remains sitting
     motionless, stiff as a ramrod. The judge says:

               Are you willing to wear a woman's

30   Massieu leans towards her and advises her to accept this
     suggestion, which he thinks must be very easy for her to do.
     But Joan looks at him with the air of one treasuring a great
     secret, and says no to the judge. When the judge presses her
     to tell him why she refuses, she answers:

               When I have completed the task
               which God has entrusted to me, then
               I will wear women's clothes again.

     Whispering among the judges -

31   An indication that another trap is being prepared. Then one
     of the judges says:

               So it is God who has commanded you
               to go about in men's clothes?

     Joan answers unhesitatingly:


     A smile of triumph spreads from face to face among Joan's

32   The Promoter, Jean d'Estivet, complacently makes some notes.
     Then he leans forward over his desk, smiles and asks in an
     insincere tone of voice:

               And what reward do you hope to
               obtain from the Lord?

33   Joan, whose expression is that of a saint, folds her hands on
     her breast and raises her eyes to heaven:

               The salvation of my soul!

     She remains sitting in the same position; her look conveys
     the impression that she can see into the furthest corner of

34   But Jean d'Estivet is incapable of controlling himself. He
     gets up, goes right up to her, spits in her face and hisses:

               Do you not understand that what you
               are saying is blasphemy?

     Then he goes back to his place. But on Joan's face there
     lingers the expression of one who is far removed from this
     world. From time to time throughout this episode two of the
     judges, Nicolas de Houppeville and Martin Ladvenu, have been
     seen to show signs of sympathy for the accused.

35   After this last outrage on the part of the Promoter, de
     Houppeville can control himself no longer. Provoked to the
     limit, he rises and shouts:

               This is unworthy ...

     The whole room turns to him in amazement. He continues

               ... it is persecution!

36   He leaves his place; Ladvenu tries to restrain him, but he
     approaches the bishop and says to him:

               We are treating this woman like an
               enemy - not like a human being on

37   Then he casts a look full of tenderness at Joan, who at this
     moment is drying her cheeks, still wet from Jean d'Estivet's
     spittle. Houppeville continues:

               For me she is a saint!

     He goes over to her, genuflects before her, and turns to go
     out through the door.

38   Warwick has followed these proceedings with an attentive eye.
     He whispers a few words to an officer, who follows
     Houppeville the length of the chapel.

39   When he reaches the porch the officer takes two soldiers with
     him and follows on Houppeville's heels.

     Each of the judges in the room understands the fate in store
     for Houppeville, and is seized with fear. An icy, unquiet
     silence prevails.

40   Paul Jorge [the name of one of the actors] prepares to rise
     and ask the meaning of this incident.

41   Cauchon stops him with a movement, and gives the order for
     the session to continue. He asks Joan:

               Has God promised you anything?

     Joan gives an absent-minded nod. Cauchon presses her to tell
     him what it is that God has promised.

               Can you not tell us what it is that
               God has promised you?

     Cauchon asks with his most ingratiating smile, but Joan
     shakes her head. Cauchon tries to persuade her:

               You must tell us.

     But Joan declines to answer:

               That has nothing to do with your

42   Cauchon maintains the contrary, and Joan tells him to ask the
     assembly. Cauchon turns to the judges and asks:

               Has this question any bearing on
               the trial?

     He orders those who consider that it has to raise their
     hands. Nearly every hand goes up. Then it is the turn of
     those who take the opposite view. Ladvenu is the only one to
     raise his hand, but when he sees that he is entirely alone he
     takes it down again.

43   And Cauchon is able to say to Joan that, since the relevance
     of the question to the trial has been unanimously agreed, she
     is obliged to answer. He repeats his question:

               What has God promised you?

     Joan does not answer.

44   Cauchon continues:

               Has God promised you that you will
               be released from your prison?

     Joan confirms this with a nod. Dalleu speaks in a low voice
     to Cauchon, who asks:


     After sitting for a while, lost in thought, Joan answers:

               I do not know the day or the hour!

     A further exchange of words between Cauchon and d'Estivet
     then Cauchon makes a sign for Massieu to take the accused
     back to prison. Joan rises to go.

45   She takes a few steps, turns and asks:

               May I not be relieved from carrying
               these chains?

     Cauchon can see no reason for complying with her request. But
     he sees the opportunity of imposing a condition which he
     knows will be unacceptable to Joan:

               Will you take an oath never to bear
               arms against England again?

46   Joan answers unhesitatingly:


     Then she is led away. Her chains clank as they drag over the
     flagstones. The judges leave their places.

47   They break up into groups, according to their friendships or
     the order to which they belong. We see one group consisting
     of Dominicans, another of canons, a third of mendicant
     friars. The entire assembly talks and whispers. Monks'
     cloaks, homespun tunics and cowls, caps and hats. Here a fat
     old abbot, here a short, slim monk. Respectful inclinations
     of the head, sanctimonious smiles, violent outbursts of
     laughter. The witty ones recognizable by their thin lips and
     legs. In the background beardless students, solemn as popes,
     in earnest discussion.

     But round the judges' table a discussion is going on between
     Cauchon, Lemaître, Jean d'Estivet, the learned Thomas de
     Courcelles, Loiseleur, Beaupère, Pierre Maurice and Warwick.
     Warwick stays in the background, as if wishing to underline
     that he has no part in the conspiracy against Joan; but it is
     clearly understood that he has the last word in the matter.
     They are considering what procedure to adopt. The point is to
     lose as little time as possible in getting Joan to compromise
     herself. Loiseleur propounds a scheme which receives general
     approval. Warwick is asked a question, which he answers in
     the affirmative. An order is given to a secretary, who at
     once leaves the chapel.


     Massieu has brought Joan back. The door closes behind her.
     Overcome by fatigue, she sits on her bed. In front of the
     judges she has restrained her weeping. Now that she is alone,
     the pent-up tears pour from her eyes.


     The conference is still going on. Loiseleur is dictating to
     the notaries. At intervals one of the other judges interposes
     a word or a suggestion.


     Joan is still shaking with sobs. Suddenly she sees a cross
     slowly forming on the floor close to her feet. It is the
     shadow of the window grating. She knows this cross and loves
     it. It always comes when she is feeling lonely and unhappy.
     She has no doubt that it is God who sends her solace and
     encouragement in this way. She dries her eyes and produces
     from a hiding-place a piece of handiwork, with which she
     occupies her hands and her thoughts when she is not before
     the judges. It is a crown of plaited straw - very simple,
     pretty and childlike. Soon she is completely absorbed in this
     work, to which she devotes all her love. We see the Joan from
     Domrémy who 'is second to no woman in Rouen, when it comes to
     spinning or sewing.' From time to time she looks at the cross
     on the ground.

51   The conference in the chapel. Loiseleur finishes his
     dictating. The notary reads back to him.


     We see only Joan's hands which are occupied in plaiting her
     crown. The shot is taken in such a way that the crown and the
     cross on the ground can be seen together.

53   The conference in the chapel. The notary finishes his reading
     aloud and what he has read is approved. Meanwhile the
     secretary has returned. He hands a document to Warwick, who
     passes it round. It goes from hand to hand, and finally to
     the notary.

54   In the little ante-room leading to Joan's prison. The
     soldiers are playing with a small English dog. An old serving
     woman comes with food for Joan in an earthenware bowl. One of
     the soldiers seizes the bowl; he selects the best piece of
     meat and gives it to the dog. The latter swallows the meat
     and licks the soldier's fingers. With the same fingers he
     picks out another piece of meat and gives this also to the

55   A short scene from the conference, featuring two documents. A
     hand - that of the notary - is engaged in copying the
     signature from one document to the other.


     The soldier comes in with Joan's food, followed by the dog.
     Two other soldiers appear in the door, for these rascals
     never lose an opportunity of tormenting their victim. As the
     soldier hands Joan the food, his eye falls on her ring. He
     demands it from her, but she implores him to let her keep it:
     it is her mother's ring. But the soldier is determined to
     have it, even if he has to use force. He calls to the other
     two soldiers to come and help him, and puts the bowl of food
     on the ground in such a position that the dog naturally takes
     advantage of it.

57   Just as the first soldier has finally succeeded in forcing
     the ring from Joan's finger Loiseleur appears in the open
     door. He appears to be filled with genuine indignation at the
     sight of the ill treatment to which the three rascals are
     subjecting Joan. The soldiers have turned round. They are
     afraid. Loiseleur threatens them and quickly goes up to the
     soldier who has wrested Joan's ring from her. The soldier is
     compelled to hand over the ring to Loiseleur, who thereupon
     orders the three ruffians out of the cell.

58   Loiseleur shuts the door. He is alone with Joan. He looks all
     round him and goes over to Joan who regards him with deep
     amazement which embraces gratitude as well; for after all it
     is he who has just saved her from the soldiers' cruelties. He
     remains standing a few paces from her, looks at her in a
     serious and friendly way and says:

               I have great sympathy for you!

     A feeble smile appears at the corners of Joan's mouth, but
     her expression of astonishment remains.

59   Loiseleur has stopped by the cross; when he takes a pace
     forward the cross disappears; but Joan fails to notice this,
     absorbed as she is in wondering why this prelate has come to
     visit her. Loiseleur, who has now come right up to Joan,
     hands her the ring, which she receives gratefully. Then she
     again fixes her look of enquiry on the prelate, whom she has
     previously seen among her judges.

60   Finally he says to her in a low whisper:

               Would you recognize your King's

     Joan nods, though without understanding the purpose of his
     visit. From his cowl he produces a letter which he hands to
     Joan. She takes it. She shows with a smile that she
     recognizes Charles VII's signature. Then she returns the
     letter and says:

               I can't read!

61   Loiseleur reads the letter aloud for her, as follows:

               To our dearly beloved Joan.
               Charles, the King, hereby informs
               you that he is preparing to advance
               on Rouen with a mighty army. He is
               sending you a faithful priest, who
               will stand by you. Have confidence
               in him.

     The reflection of an inner joy shines in her eyes. Her face
     lights up during the reading and she smiles. Loiseleur does
     not move from the spot. He stands watching her, motionless
     and pale. He gazes at her with the eyes of a snake, while
     Joan sits with an absent smile, completely absorbed in her
     own joyful thoughts.

62   Loiseleur suddenly raises his head and pricks up his ears.
     Immediately behind the cell wall there is a secret room,
     where a man can remain hidden, spying on the prisoner through
     a judas, or chink in the wall. Alternating with the scenes
     between Joan and Loiseleur are close-ups of Cauchon spying
     and eavesdropping behind the chink.

63   Loiseleur moves away from Joan and goes towards the hiding-
     place; he is perfectly aware of its existence. When he
     reaches the chink, he and Cauchon look at each other. First
     Cauchon's serious eye is shown through the chink, then -
     likewise through the chink - Loiseleur's small, cunning,
     contracted eye. Loiseleur catches sight of the crown and

               Your martyr's crown.

     Then he turns to Joan, who is still sitting with the King's
     letter in her hands. He offers to hear her confession.

64   She turns to him with a look of joy, hardly daring to believe
     in this happiness. She drops a pretty curtsy, then kneels
     with folded hands in a charming attitude suggestive of a
     penitent child. He advises her strongly to speak to him with
     an open heart. Here she is not before her judge, but before
     her king. God can hear her!

65   Joan confesses her sins like a schoolchild reciting a lesson.
     Cauchon and his attendants follow the scene attentively from
     the secret room. With a ledger on his lap the notary takes
     down everything that Joan says, but it is clear that she is
     saying nothing of any significance, for all the skill with
     which Loiseleur presents his questions. So it is not long
     before Loiseleur gives her a sugary smile and rattles off the
     absolution. He makes the sign of the cross over her and
     stands up.

66   Cauchon and his confidants have left their hiding-place and
     now come into the cell. The soldiers bring in chairs and a
     table for the scribe. The judges group themselves in a circle
     round Joan, some sitting, others standing. Loiseleur places
     himself behind Cauchon. In addition to the judges, Massieu
     also is present.

67   Cauchon gestures to Lemaître who says to Joan:

               You profess to be a daughter of
               God? ...

     Joan agrees with a nod, and Lemaître continues:

               Then why will you not say Our

     Joan sits motionless for a moment. The judges look at her
     with watchful eyes. A perceptible change comes over Joan. Her
     expression is transfigured. A heavenly light spreads over her
     face, she folds her hands and begins to pray. The sight of
     this small and helpless woman, turning to God in captivating
     innocence, makes an involuntary impression on some of the
     judges. The gentle Massieu in particular can hardly restrain
     his tears.

     Joan has said the Our Father. Jean d'Estivet is thus obliged
     to eliminate this important point from his charge-sheet.

68   Lemaître continues with the hearing:

               Has God told you that you will be
               released from your prison?

     Joan smiles and gives Loiseleur a secret, confidential
     glance. His eyes gleam back at her in complicity. She

               Yes ... and by means of a great

69   The judges are astonished and cross-examine her. They ask her
     to explain precisely what she knows, and how she has come to
     know it. But Joan answers:

               I know that God will soon come to
               my help in a miraculous way!

70   Jean d'Estivet hastens to write down this important answer.
     With great secrecy he grips Loiseleur's hand in gratitude.
     Cauchon, Lemaître and some of the other judges plot together.

71   Lemaître leans forward and begins to question her:

               Has God promised you that you will
               go to Paradise?

     Joan knows instinctively that they have laid a trap for her.
     In her uncertainty she looks for help from Loiseleur, who
     indicates to her with a slight smile that she is to say yes.
     Lemaître is satisfied with her answer but takes good care to
     conceal his satisfaction. In a tone almost of boredom he

               So you are certain of being saved?

72   Again Joan resorts to Loiseleur. He gives the same sign as
     before, and Joan says yes.

     Massieu's eyes are as if riveted to Joan's lips, and now when
     she answers yes he forgets where he is, forgets that Cauchon
     is just beside him, and almost without thinking says to Joan:

               Do you realize that this is an
               extremely important answer?

     Cauchon pounces on Massieu and bursts out:

               You had better hold your tongue!

     Massieu wants to explain, but Cauchon cuts him short and
     orders the hearing to continue.

73   Lemaître presents his next question, which is only one link
     in a chain of questions carefully prepared and ingeniously

               Since you are so certain of your
               salvation ... why do you need to go
               to confession?

     Joan is already floundering in the net. She has the feeling
     that her answer may decide her destiny. She is like a hunted
     animal that looks for the smallest gap in the chain of
     beaters in the hope of escaping its pursuers. The judges
     never take their eyes from her. Ladvenu and Massieu are the
     only ones whose faces show signs of sympathy and compassion.
     Loiseleur, seeing that his plan is working out to perfection,
     gives Cauchon a slight nudge with his knee. There is a pause.

74   Lemaître realizes that the moment is ripe for presenting the
     final question which will settle the issue:

               Are you in a state of grace?

     For a few seconds it is so still that you could hear a pin
     drop. Joan tries to catch Loiseleur's eye, but he adroitly
     avoids meeting her look of entreaty. Joan is obviously at a
     loss how to answer.

75   But then the honest and fair-minded Massieu moves
     convulsively forward and shouts:

               Don't answer, Joan - this question
               is too dangerous...

     Cauchon, enraged, rises in all his majesty and bellows with
     the full power of his lungs:

               Be quiet, will you, in the Devil's

     Massieu defends himself. He explains that nobody has the
     right to ask such a question of an accused person, least of
     all when the accused is a young girl standing on her own with
     nobody to advise her. But Cauchon will tolerate no
     insubordination. Massieu is forced to kneel there and then
     and ask for pardon, and must consider himself fortunate not
     to share de Houppeville's fate.

76   When peace is restored Cauchon gives orders for the hearing
     to continue. Lemaître, still seething, asks:

               Answer now! Are you in a state of

     Joan opens her mouth to answer, but appears to have second
     thoughts and remains silent. She looks in the direction of
     Loiseleur, who is apparently absorbed in his own reflection.
     He is abandoning her to her fate. In his view she is a
     certain prey; whether she answers yes or no, she is doomed to
     perdition. But now that Joan has collected her thoughts
     again, she gives this admirable answer:

               If I am not, may God put me there!
               And if I am, may God so keep me!

77   Joan has broken the chain of beaters. She realizes this and
     smiles. But her judges, who have sat there greedily waiting
     for the prey to fall into the net so that they can hurl
     themselves on it - these judges now sit not knowing what to
     say or where to look. They gaze at each other in speechless
     amazement. Some of them unconsciously make the sign of the
     cross. Loiseleur is beyond doubt the most disconcerted. All
     of them feel that they have suffered a defeat. This battle is
     lost; now they must try to win the next one. A short
     conference takes place. The judges rise to go.

78   Joan throws herself at Cauchon's feet, embraces his knees and
     begs him:

               I implore you to let me come to

     Cauchon thrusts her away so brutally that she hits the bed.
     She remains lying on the floor.

79   Loiseleur has hastily stolen over to Cauchon and is
     whispering something in his ear. Cauchon's face lights up. He
     whispers to the others, letting them in on Loiseleur's plan.
     Then he approaches Joan and says to her in his mildest voice:

               Joan, if you were allowed to go to
               Mass now ...

     Joan looks up at Cauchon. Her eyes are already gleaming with
     hope and expectation. Cauchon continues:

               ... would you consent to give up
               your men's clothes?

     When Joan hears this condition, her hope is extinguished as
     rapidly as it was kindled. Her expression reflects the
     deepest disappointment. Her judges repeat Cauchon's question,
     but she declines their offer. One of them helps her up. She
     sits on the bed, and all those taking part in the session
     crowd round her, saying that she must adopt the dress which
     is appropriate to her sex, if she wants to obtain so great a
     blessing, and if she wants to live up to her pious feelings.

80   Finally Cauchon says:

               Then you would rather keep your
               men's clothes than come to Mass?

     Joan explains through her tears that she is not allowed to do

               I cannot do anything else ... it is
               not in my power!

     But Cauchon, unable to control his anger, persists:

               ... this shameless costume ...

     Joan tries in vain to make them understand that this form of
     dress does not pollute her soul with sin, and that wearing it
     is not in conflict with the Church's laws. Ignoring Joan's
     remarks, Cauchon rages:

               ... abominable in the eyes of God

     Joan writhes under these denunciations, she implores him to
     show mercy, but he scourges her pitilessly:

               ... You are no daughter of God ...

     Joan weeps and sobs.

81   Cauchon shows no sympathy. He lowers his voice, bends right
     over her and hisses:

               ... but a child of the Devil!

     Joan cries out and collapses.

     The judges watch her for a moment. Ladvenu full of sympathy.
     Then Cauchon turns to Massieu and says:

                  Go and prepare the instruments of

     Massieu can hardly believe his ears. Are they really going to
     torture Joan? But a look from Cauchon prevents him from
     saying anything. He goes out through the door, giving Joan a
     look of compassion as he does so.

82   The soldiers, who have witnessed the examination, escort him
     out, and in the ante-room they reproach and abuse him:

                  Why did you make signs to her and
                  give her good advice?

     They threaten to throw him into the Seine if this happens


     The judges leave Joan, Loiseleur being the last to go. Before
     he leaves the cell he approaches Joan and pats her hair

                  Do not grieve ... place your trust
                  in God, he will not forget you!

     Joan turns her tear-stained face to him; full of gratitude
     for his kind words, she kisses his hand. Then Loiseleur goes

     Joan is left in solitude for a mere moment, before the
     soldiers enter in order to bait her in their usual manner.
     Joan takes no notice of them. One of them tickles her in the
     ear with a straw. Joan gets up laboriously and sits down on
     the bed. One of the soldiers suddenly catches sight of the
     straw crown. He laughs, picks it up, turns it round in his
     hands, and finally places it on Joan's head. Outraged by this
     form of sacrilege, she removes it and puts it on the bed; but
     the soldier replaces the crown on her head, at the same time
     giving her several slaps in the face. He steps back and peeps
     through the hollow of his hand, as if to see her better.

84   The other soldiers roar with laughter and say in mocking

                  She looks just like a daughter of
                  God, eh?

     He takes an arrow from his quiver, and places it in Joan's
     hands. She lets him do this without resistance.

     Another soldier takes a pitcher of water, and sprinkles Joan
     with his fingers. All three bow low before her as if she was
     a saint, and finally kneel and say:

               Saint Joan, pray for us!

     Then, still bowing, they step back and go out.

     Joan sits for a moment by herself. Without changing her
     position she prays silently to God. She is praying to the
     Almighty for strength and courage to endure her trial by

85   Enter Massieu. He is to fetch Joan and bring her to the
     torture-chamber. He is amazed at finding her decked out in
     this way, but he gives her such comfort as he can, and leads
     her out.


     The judges have already arrived and are taking their places.
     They consist of Pierre Cauchon, Lemaître, and nine doctors
     and prelates. The two executioners, Maugier Leparmentier and
     his assistant, are putting the instruments in order and
     making other necessary preparations.

87   Enter Massieu with Joan. She is told to come nearer. Cauchon
     tells one of the younger judges to bring a stool for Joan.

88   The judge who helps Joan to her seat says:

               Look! at all these kind,
               sympathetic men ...

     He points at Cauchon, who sits surrounded by his
     collaborators. Not one face expresses any feeling of
     friendliness towards the accused. The judge continues:

               Do you not consider that these
               learned doctors are likely to be
               endowed with more wisdom than you

89   Joan nods half absent-mindedly. The judge is pleased with his
     happy idea and is about to continue his course of instruction
     when Joan interrupts him:

               ... but the wisdom of God is even

     The judge, who has spoken to Joan as one speaks to a child
     which stubbornly refuses to listen to reason, shrugs his
     shoulders and gives up. There is nothing to be done about
     this woman's arrogance.

90   Cauchon has raised his hands to his face, outraged by such
     obstinacy. Now he leans forward in his chair and says with
     great emphasis:

               Suppose we were to tell you now
               that your visions did not - as you
               believe - come from God ...

     Joan looks up quickly, as if unable to believe her ears. She
     searches the faces of her judges, one after the other.
     Cauchon continues:

               ... but are sent to you by the
               Devil, who wants to bring your soul
               to perdition!

     Joan sits for a moment, deep in thought. Then a smile spreads
     across her face. Almost unconsciously she shakes her head -
     and smiles again. Assuredly the Devil has no power over her
     and is not going to obtain it either.

91   One of the judges asks:

               If the Devil appeared in the form
               of an angel, how could you be
               certain whether it was a good or a
               bad angel?

     For a moment the smile fades from Joan's lips. She does not
     answer. Cauchon looks at her for a long time and then says:

               It is Satan to whom you have knelt,
               not Saint Michael!

     Joan finds this idea so comical that she has to laugh. She
     cannot help herself; it is not a provocative laugh, only the
     spontaneous laughter of a healthy person. But Cauchon strikes
     the table in anger. Joan stops laughing. Cauchon gazes
     fixedly at her for some time without saying a word. There is
     complete silence in the room.

92   Cauchon gets up, approaches Joan in a dignified manner, leans
     towards her and says:

               How can you believe that it is God
               who guides your steps when you see
               the abyss opening before your feet?

     Joan is serious again. Cauchon continues, pronouncing the
     words with steadily increasing emphasis:

               Do you not understand that it is
               the Devil who has turned your head

     He pauses briefly, then continues:

               ... who has deceived you ...

     Then after another short pause:

               ... and betrayed you?

     While Cauchon has been speaking a change has come over Joan.
     It is clear that she is tormented by doubts. God has promised
     her that she will be set free. Why has God not kept his
     promise to her? Why does he let her stand alone against all
     these churchmen, these learned doctors? She even asks herself
     whether she has the right to talk as she does in front of all
     these gifted and erudite men. Is it true that she is full of
     pride? Is it the Devil who has possessed her and insinuated
     in her mind everything that she believed to have come from

93   Cauchon, judge of character that he is, has no difficulty in
     seeing what is going on in this young woman's heart. While
     Joan is wrestling with her doubts he orders a small table to
     be set in front of her. He puts a document on the table and
     then places a pen in her hand. Half absentmindedly she lets
     him do all this, but when Cauchon tries to persuade her to
     sign she tells him that she is unable to read. Cauchon tells
     the notary to read the declaration aloud:

               ... I declare that I am guilty of
               the crimes with which I am charged,
               and which the Devil has misled me
               into committing. I confess that my
               visions are the work of the Devil,
               and I am ready to return to the
               path of truth and, before all the
               world, to recant ...

94   When the notary has finished reading aloud, Cauchon tells
     Joan warningly that she must sign the declaration, and adds:

               The Church is opening her arms to
               you ...

     Joan's expression makes it clear that she has almost overcome
     her doubts. Her faith in God and belief in her mission are on
     the point of gaining the upper hand.

     Cauchon threatens her:

               ... but if you do not sign, the
               Church will turn her back on you
               and you will stand alone ...

     Joan's crisis is over. Once again she sees clearly the path
     she must follow. Quietly she puts away the pen. Cauchon sees
     this and thunders:

               ... alone ...

     But a heavenly light shines from Joan's face. She smiles.
     With her eyes raised to heaven she says:

               ... alone - with God!

95   Cauchon, realizing that his prey is about to escape him,
     increases his exertions and displays all his powers of
     persuasion. Does she know that the Church has the means to
     compel her? Is she familiar with the secrets of the torture?
     Cauchon's threats make no impression on Joan.

     She feels safe with her God. Her face is transfigured by a
     beautiful light as she says:

               I would rather die than deny God's

     Enraged by Joan's pig-headedness, Cauchon loses patience. He
     orders Joan to be put to torture. While the executioners are
     taking care of her the judges gather together in a group.

     One instrument of torture after another is displayed for
     Joan's benefit. With an executioner at her side she is
     conducted past the various appliances. She looks at each one
     for a long time, trembling with fear. Occasionally the
     executioner demonstrates with a gesture how one of the
     instruments is operated. They are trying to frighten Joan out
     of her senses.

     When the executioners have completed their preparations and
     the torture can begin, Cauchon goes up to Joan and invites
     her once again to sign the declaration. She refuses and says:

               Even though you torture my soul out
               of my body I shall confess nothing

     Cauchon gives orders for the torture to begin. Joan lets out
     a scream of pain. She is seen to raise one hand. They all
     think she is indicating her readiness to sign. A judge holds
     the document out to her, but Joan thrusts it away so
     violently that it falls on the ground. Somebody picks it up.
     And Joan says vehemently:

               ... and if I should confess
               anything, I will afterwards declare
               that it was only by using force
               that you made me confess.

96    Joan collapses. The executioner bends over her. She has

97    The executioner and Massieu carry her out while the judges
      confer on what procedure to adopt next.


      Massieu has gone on ahead to notify Joan's keeper, who sends
      a man out with a message for Warwick. Massieu prepares Joan's
      bed and takes the little crown in his hands; he looks at it
      for a moment, then flings it into a corner. Enter the
      executioner and his assistant, carrying Joan between them.
      They lay her on the bed and go out. Before Massieu leaves the
      cell, he gives one of the soldiers instructions to keep an
      eye on Joan.


      The judges confer. Cauchon thinks the torture should
      continue, and asks the judges to vote on this proposal, but
      only one of them is in favor of continuing. This is
      Loiseleur, who says:

                   It is medicine for her soul!

      Ladvenu gives Loiseleur a look of hostility.


      Joan is lying on her wretched bed. The chains, the brutal
      soldiers, terror, fatigue, and finally the torture have
      exhausted her strength. She is unrecognizable. Her face is as
      white as a sheet. Deep shadows under her eyes. When the scene
      opens, she is lying in a feverish doze. She breathes rapidly
      and with difficulty.

      A soldier with a hard, repellent face is watching at her
      side. Joan opens her eyes and says:

                   I am thirsty!

      The soldier looks at her with an unfeeling, hostile
      expression. Then he takes the bowl of water and pours the
      water over the floor.


      The judges have not yet concluded their conference. They
      still seem unable to agree on whether the torture shall
      continue or not. However, Master Erard wins a majority of the
      votes when he declares:

                   This heart is much too hardened ...

                   there is no hope of our getting a
                   recantation this time - we will
                   have to wait!

      Cauchon disagrees. A confession would be valuable, even if it
      was subsequently withdrawn. But Erard continues:

                   ... and she might die at our hands!

      Cauchon yields to this argument. Even Loiseleur defers to
      Erard and admits that it would be very damaging to all their
      interests if Joan died at the hands of the executioner. She
      would then be certain to enjoy a martyr's glory. Having
      decided to give up the torture they leave the torture-


      Enter Warwick. He goes over to the bed and bends over Joan -
      not with any feeling of sympathy. Joan opens her eyes for a
      moment and meets his cold, hostile gaze. Then she relapses
      into her state of lethargy. Warwick goes from the bed towards
      the door, which he has left standing open behind him. Two
      doctors whom he has sent for come into the cell. He follows
      them over to the bed, where he speaks the famous words which
      for sheer brutality are without parallel in history:

                   I would not have her die a natural
                   death on any account ... she has
                   cost me too much for that...

      The doctors begin to examine Joan. They feel her thighs and
      right side.

      Meanwhile Warwick has gone from the sick-bed over to the

103   Enter Loiseleur with the news that Cauchon is waiting in the
      adjoining room. Warwick is about to go when one of the
      doctors approaches him and says:

                   She has a fever, we shall have to
                   bleed her ...

      Warwick shows signs of unease, and asks whether this is
      really necessary.

      The doctor insists that it is. Warwick consents, adding:

                   But take good care that she does
                   not do away with herself ... she is
                   very crafty.

104   The doctor turns back to the bed to prepare for the blood-
      letting. Warwick accompanies Loiseleur into the adjoining
      room, where Cauchon and some of the other judges are waiting.
      Cauchon enquires after Joan. Warwick answers in a manner
      which cannot be misunderstood:

                She is very weak...

      The two men exchange glances. Cauchon and the judges have
      come to extort a confession from Joan. 'whether because they
      were afraid of her escaping in this way and dying without
      having made a recantation, or because her weakened physical
      condition raised hopes of her soul being easier to purchase.'

      Cauchon explains to Warwick how he wants to proceed.
      Loiseleur joins in the discussion and proposes a drastic
      remedy. Cauchon approves Loiseleur's idea and tells Massieu
      and another young monk to fetch the holy vessel.

105   While this is going on, scenes are shown from the sick-bed
      and Joan's blood-letting. One of the doctors goes out in
      order to report that the blood-letting is finished. The
      patient is better and can undergo examination without danger.

      Cauchon, Loiseleur and some of the other clerics come into
      the cell. Warwick remains with the doctors in the adjoining

106   Joan is lying with closed eyes. Cauchon goes over to the bed
      and bends over Joan with a benevolent, paternal expression.
      He touches her on the temples. Joan opens her feverish eyes.
      He asks her in a friendly manner how she is. She makes a
      movement with her head and at the same time gives a feeble
      smile. Her eyes shift from Cauchon to the others; what is
      going to happen now? She is evidently taken by surprise.

107   Cauchon guesses her thoughts, calms her and says:

                We have come to give you comfort
                and strength ...

      A tiny glimmer of gratitude passes over Joan's face. Cauchon
      and the others install themselves, sitting and standing round
      her bed.

      Cauchon, with the same benevolent air and kindly smile, asks
      whether Joan has anything to say to him, whether perhaps she
      has any wishes. Joan holds him for a long time in her gaze,
      which the fever has made still more penetrating. Then she
      makes a feeble movement with her head. Cauchon arranges the
      pillow under her and comes close to her in order to hear
      better. Joan, whose labored breathing makes it difficult for
      her to speak, says in a weak voice:

                I am afraid that I am going to die

108   Cauchon speaks some words of consolation to her in his
      capacity of priest. Joan continues:

                ... If I should die, I implore you
                to have me buried in consecrated

      Joan tries to read the answer from Cauchon's face; she sees
      only utter benevolence and charitableness. In addition, all
      the judges now seem full of affection and sympathy. They
      tiptoe round her bed, first one and then another coming close
      up to her. They tuck the blanket round her and touch the
      place where she has been bled. Some of them kneel and pray
      for Joan. She regrets not having been more amiable towards
      these men who are revealing their true feelings, now that
      they see her in such misery. She feels every confidence in
      them and in Cauchon. He has caused her great suffering; now,
      however, he appears no longer as a judge, but as one who has
      come to show her goodness and compassion. And when Cauchon
      strokes her hair and says:

                The Church is merciful ...

      Joan smiles trustfully.

109   Cauchon continues:

                She does not close her heart
                against those who return to her ...

      Joan, in her weakened state, does not know how to express her
      gratitude. She squeezes Cauchon's large hand in her tiny one,
      which is absolutely white. But Cauchon says in a gentle

                What would you say if we gave you
                the Sacrament?

      Joan cannot believe her ears. She asks one question after
      another, which Cauchon answers only with nods and his
      paternal, benevolent smile. Joan has to find an outlet for
      her joy, and with her two small hands she takes Cauchon's
      great fist and places it against her cheek.

110   Cauchon signals to Loiseleur, who opens the door. Enter
      Massieu with the Eucharist. Cauchon helps Joan sit up in bed.
      Beside herself with joy and anticipation, she follows the
      preparations and keeps looking at Cauchon with gratitude.
      Then she says joyfully:

                I am a good Christian ...

111   The judges in the cell send up a prayer of thanks to God for
      restoring this lost sheep to the fold. Joan smiles happily.

      Then the notary places a document in front of Joan and offers
      her a pen. Joan looks in amazement at the document, which she
      recognizes: it is the same declaration which was placed in
      front of her for her to sign during the torture scene. Her
      look of astonishment shifts from the notary to the document
      and from the latter to Cauchon.

112   She explains once more that all the accusations in the
      document are what God has commanded her to do. She cannot
      recant like this without denying her God. Cauchon bends over
      her and says:

                The Sacrament ... is it not a great

      Joan nods, and her expression seems to want to say: of
      course, everybody knows that the Church has no greater

      Cauchon continues:

                ... But you will never share in the
                Church's blessings, if you do not
                expiate your sins.

113   He indicates to Joan that she must sign. One of the judges
      approaches with a wafer. An expression of misery and pain
      lies on Joan's face as she sits there, sick, feverish and
      racked with doubts. On one side she sees the wafer, which is
      more precious to her than life itself, on the other side the
      document, which will make her confess that she is an agent of
      the Devil.

114   As if talking to herself and her conscience, she says:

                I am a good Christian ...

      As she sits there, alone with all these men, she is the
      picture of utter despair and loneliness. They all gaze at her
      with fixed stares. Nobody speaks to her. Finally Cauchon
      breaks the silence. In a quiet voice he advises Joan to sign
      and save her soul; but Joan has now mastered her temptation.
      She hands back the paper. Her body is broken. But the
      strength of her spirit is unaltered.

      For a moment they are all struck dumb.

115   Cauchon gestures, ordering the Sacrament to be carried out.
      The tears run down Joan's cheeks, when she sees the priests
      going out with the sacred vessel.

                  I love God ... I love Him with all
                  my heart!

      she says.

116   Loiseleur, who has accompanied the procession into the
      adjoining room, tells Warwick the outcome.

117   In the cell the atmosphere has changed abruptly. Cordiality
      is replaced by coldness, gentleness by severity. The judges
      are overcome by a feeling which can almost be called
      irritation - irritation with Joan and what they call her pig-

118   Jean d'Estivet reproaches her harshly for allowing her vanity
      to take precedence over the salvation of her soul. He
      concludes with these words:

                  If you die in this hour, you die as
                  an infidel...

      Joan, goaded by the mental torture to which she has been
      subjected, answers in words conjured up by her sancta
      simplicitas; but Jean d'Estivet, revelling in the pain his
      speech has given Joan, obliterates her with the wounding
      words, which sting like the lash of a whip:

                  Your soul is doomed to perdition

      To which one of the others adds:

                  ... to everlasting torture in the
                  flames of Hell!

119   Groaning under the burden of the injustice and malice they
      are heaping on her, Joan turns for comfort to Cauchon, whose
      hand she has just pressed to her cheek; but Cauchon has no
      comfort to give. He draws back and says coldly:

                  Joan, you are a child of the Devil!

120   She looks at him in unaffected terror. Then it is as if a
      veil gradually falls from her eyes; as if the whole truth is
      revealed to her in a flash of lightning. They have lied to
      her in order to trap her. In her overwrought and exhausted
      condition she loses all self-control. Fever and ecstasy take
      charge of her features. As a stream of reproaches pours from
      her lips they all gaze at her in terror: is this the last
      flare-up before death, is it madness? All of them feel
      themselves face to face with something unfamiliar and
      extraordinary. Slowly they draw away. Cauchon rises and backs
      round his chair.

121   Foaming at the mouth, Joan continues to pour out a torrent of

                   You say that I am a child of the

      and she continues:

                   ... but I say it is you who have
                   been sent by the Devil to torment

      She stands up in bed, pointing at each judge in turn.

      A violent storm of anger breaks out:

                   Blasphemy! She is possessed! This
                   is monstrous!

      The judges huddle together in their agitation and terror, and
      gradually withdraw.

122   And now Joan falls back on her bed, exhausted. She groans and
      gasps for breath. She wipes the sweat from her forehead with
      her sleeve. For a moment there is silence. Only her groans
      can be heard. The judges look at each other, not knowing what
      to do. Then they turn to Cauchon who is pondering. It is he
      who breaks the silence with the following words addressed to

                   There is nothing for it ... give
                   the executioner his orders!

      While the doctors who have entered during the preceding scene
      are attending to Joan, the judges leave the room.

123   By the time the judges come out into the castle yard, there
      are already rumors of what has happened in the cell. The
      inhabitants of the castle crowd round to hear the news and
      learn of the preparations now in hand for the penultimate act
      of the drama. From the castle yard a small door leads out to
      the churchyard, which lies outside the castle walls. The
      judges make for the churchyard.


      Some soldiers have come with a stretcher. They lift Joan onto
      it and carry her out.


      One group of judges after another is seen moving forward to
      the spot from which they are to witness the impending

126   Joan, lying on the stretcher, is carried into the churchyard.

127   The churchyard, which is surrounded by walls, is very big,
      but only a few graves can be seen in it. They are all covered
      with flat stones after the custom of the Middle Ages. In
      those days churchyards served as a meeting-place at certain
      festivals, and the judicial authorities of the Church often
      used them as a stage for important announcements and
      abjurations, which they wanted known to as many people as
      possible; they formed a theatrical setting, with graves and
      gravestones as sets. A stench of putrefaction arose from this
      earth filled with dead bodies. The poisonous smell of
      nothingness. The smell of stones, corpses and worms. Against
      the buttress of the church two platforms have been erected
      and covered with red velvet. On one of them the entire
      assembly of judges is sitting in state: Pierre Cauchon, the
      Inquisitor, and a host of jurists in scarlet caps and purple
      skull-caps. The other platform is for Joan.

128   Escorted by English soldiers, Joan's little procession comes
      slowly to this place.

129   Everywhere in the churchyard, and even on the walls, there
      are thousands of people, heads jostling. The great majority
      of them are favorably disposed towards Joan. When she is
      carried in, every neck is craned to catch a glimpse of her.
      For her part Joan tries to read her destiny in their faces.
      From the way they look at her she gets the impression that
      their feelings towards her are friendly. Joan, who for months
      has lived remote from this earth, is visibly moved. She
      smiles at the tiny flowers which greet her from the grass.
      She almost touches them with her hand and imagines that she
      is caressing them. But when she looks in the other direction,
      her eye falls on two gravediggers who are engaged in opening
      up an old grave. She sees the worms swarming in the skulls
      which are thrown up, and she is filled with the fear of
      death. Once more she ponders over the words which the members
      of the judicial body have addressed to her, and she thinks
      sadly of her fellow countrymen, who seem to have forsaken her

130   The tiny procession approaches the platform reserved for
      Joan. Loiseleur comes forward to meet the procession and
      assist her. She smiles happily at this man, whom she believes
      to be on her side. She is helped to a seat on a little stool.

131   Her face is as white as a sheet. She closes her eyes, which
      have been hurting intensely, bows her head and places her
      hands on her breast to all appearances indifferent to
      everything happening around her. Erard, Massieu and two
      notaries take their places at Joan's side.

132   Loiseleur goes back to the larger platform where he takes his
      place near Cauchon, who now gets up and declares the session

                Joan, for the last time I order you
                to abjure. Are you willing to sign?

      Joan sits motionless and expressionless. She hears nothing,
      and smiles distantly.

133   One of the prelates takes his place at Joan's side. He begins
      an admonitory sermon, taking as text the words from Saint
      John's Gospel: 'The branch cannot bear fruit of itself except
      it abide in the vine.' Inspiring terror at one moment,
      speaking sanctimoniously the next, he warns, he threatens, he
      implores, he mocks, he calls her a cunning traitor, cruel,
      greedy, a liar, a heretic, a witch. His anger rises in
      measure with his words and finally reaches a point where it
      overflows in a torrent. He is unquestionably a powerful

134   But the stream of words appears to flow over Joan's head
      without touching her. The past and the present mingle in   her
      thoughts; yet nothing of what goes on around her escapes   her
      notice. She looks towards the open grave. She cannot see   the
      actual gravedigger, only the earth which he is shoveling   up
      from deep down. Then she hears a shout of command.

135   In the densest part of the crowd the soldiers are clearing a
      passage to allow a carriage into the churchyard. The new
      arrivals are the executioner and his two assistants.

136   Erard is enraged at Joan's apparent lack of interest in what
      he is saying. He raises his voice and shouts furiously:

                ... This woman's arrogance fills
                one with disgust ...

      Joan's attitude remains unchanged. She does not move. Erard's
      voice trembles as he continues:

                There has never been a monster in
                France like the one which has
                appeared in the form of Joan.

      He pauses, leans towards her, and with a threatening gesture
      shouts at Joan:

                It is to you, Joan, I am talking...
                it is to you I say that your king
                is a heretic!

137   Now Joan turns towards him. She can withstand all his
      invective, when it is her own person and her own honor that
      are at stake; but this accusation directed at her king deeply
      outrages Joan's love of France and of Charles, the king. Her
      expression is one of anger and indignation as she says:

                Indeed, my lord, I am ready to
                maintain, even at the risk of my
                life, that my king is the noblest
                man in all Christendom...

138   A ripple of applause can be heard among the spectators. The
      soldiers, who are standing side by side in closed ranks, turn

139   Thrown out of his stride by Joan's answer, the preacher
      embarks on a tirade, which Joan answers confidently; finally,
      not knowing how to respond, he shouts to Massieu:

                Make her be quiet!

      The spectators derive much derisive enjoyment from this
      little scene.

      Order has been restored on the platform. Massieu has
      persuaded Joan to keep quiet. The preacher is approaching his
      peroration. He points to the judges and declares they have
      proved incontestably that Joan has violated the Church's
      doctrines in deed as well as in word; and asks her if she has
      anything to say in answer to this. She reflects for a moment
      and, while the spectators stand on tiptoe to see what is
      happening, she rises to her feet and says:

                I alone am responsible for
                everything that I have said and
                done ...

      Joan draws a deep breath before continuing. All those
      standing round her gaze at her expectantly. Then she says:

                ... If have done any wrong, I am to
                blame, and nobody else!

140   She sits down calmly. Erard, however, is almost inclined to
      interpret her words as a declaration that she is now ready to
      recognize the error of her ways. He leans forward towards the
      notary, who hands her a paper. Several of the judges have
      come forward, also one of Warwick's secretaries. There is so
      much tumult and confusion round Joan that she has difficulty
      hearing. Sommaire explains:

                It is the abjuration ...

      Joan does not understand what this means. What is the meaning
      of 'abjure'? She turns to Erard to ask his advice.

                Explain it to her!

      Erard orders Massieu. The latter asks to be excused, but
      after glancing at Erard he does not dare to insist, and is
      obliged to advise Joan of the danger she will incur by
      refusing. He says to her:

                If you do not sign you will be

141   Among the crowd thronging the place the word 'burnt' can be
      heard flying from mouth to mouth. Around Joan on the platform
      the air is filled with shouted words. Joan asks Massieu for
      advice; he tells her that when the Church advises her to sign
      she must do so. Once again she turns to Erard and asks him to
      tell her whether she must abjure. He answers:

                Either you sign - or you will go to
                the stake!

      and he points at the executioner, who at this moment
      approaches at a sign from Warwick. Now Joan understands the
      cruel death in store for her, and she is afraid. Jesus Christ
      also was afraid when He learned that His hour was come. Fear
      has overcome her spirit and is affecting her feelings as well
      as her judgement; with the threat of the stake hanging over
      her she now begins to consider the proposition which has been
      put to her. Almost unconsciously she turns her face towards
      the grave. She sees shovelful after shovelful of earth piling
      up ... a human skull appears among the lumps of soil. Worms
      are writhing in the eye-sockets. The spectators shout:

                Sign, Joan, sign!

142   But she does not hear them. She is breathing heavily and
      feeling giddy. She looks vacantly at her surroundings like
      somebody coming out of a faint, not knowing where he is. In a
      whisper which is barely audible to anybody but herself she

                I have done no wrong ... I believe
                in the twelve articles of the Creed
                and in God's Ten Commandments!

143   Even Erard's heart bleeds at the sight of such deep
      unhappiness. His tone changes, and his voice becomes almost
      syrupy as he says:

                Joan, we have great sympathy for

      Warwick gives a sign to the executioner, who is approaching
      with a rope.

144   Now Loiseleur mounts the platform and takes up a position on
      the other side of Joan. He says to her in a low voice:

                You have no right to die ... you
                must continue to fight for France
                ... for the King of France.

      Joan feels a pang in the pit of her stomach when he
      pronounces the name of her country and her king, which mean
      everything to her and are never out of her thoughts.

145   The spectators follow with anxiety and deep involvement
      everything taking place on the platform. Those standing round
      her, who have witnessed her fear, make all kinds of golden
      promises if only she will consent to sign. Cries of 'Sign,
      sign!' resound from mouth to mouth, and Loiseleur urges her
      earnestly to follow this advice.

      Joan is dazed, and no longer understands a thing. Anxiously
      she explores the eyes of those standing round her. Her
      terrible uncertainty is reflected in her expression. The
      moment has arrived when she begins to yield to the
      unremitting pressure. And when, at this very moment, the
      executioner rises up before her, she surrenders.

146   She casts a frightened glance at her surroundings; then she
      slowly kneels and bows her head. Sommaire seizes the document
      which has been placed in front of Joan for her signature and
      reads it aloud, sentence by sentence. Sentence by sentence
      Joan repeats his words, smiling feebly and speaking in a
      peculiar mechanical way which betrays the fact that she is
      far away, absorbed in her own thoughts. During the reading
      Erard gestures with the pen to the larger platform to inform
      the judges that Joan is going to sign. The tension among the
      spectators is at breaking point.

      The reading is concluded. Joan gets to her feet. Erard puts a
      pen in her hand; round Joan the excitement is palpable.
      People seem to be afraid of her dying.

147   But Joan is like somebody who has escaped from a great
      danger, whose relief now finds expression in a tremendous
      joy, almost resembling gaiety.

148   She draws a circle, explaining as she does so that she is
      unable to write. But this is not good enough for Erard. So
      Loiseleur steps forward and guides Joan's hand, enabling her
      to write the word JEHANNE, followed by a cross. When Joan has
      signed, Erard, with the document raised over his head, gives
      a wink of triumph to let the judges know that he has
      succeeded in his task. The document passes from hand to hand
      until it reaches Loiseleur, who says cheerfully to Joan:

                You have done a good day's work
                today ... you have saved your soul!

149   And he hurries away to give Cauchon the document.

      Among the spectators the tension is released in shouts of
      joy. But one or two English soldiers, who have seen Joan's
      smile, go up to her and shout at the priests around her:

                She has only made fools of you!

      The priests push them away. Cauchon, who has received the
      document, now gives a signal for Joan to come forward and
      hear her sentence of judgement.

150   Joan descends from the platform, leaning on Massieu. In his
      enthusiasm one of the spectators forgets himself and bursts

                Long live the Maid! ... Long live

      Two soldiers turn abruptly, force their way through the
      crowd, seize the unfortunate man who has given vent to his
      patriotic feelings, and lead him away.

151   Joan has come before her judges' great platform. Cauchon
      takes the document from his secretary and begins to read it

                In as much as you have at last
                renounced the error of your ways,
                we release you from excommunication
                from the Church ...

      Cauchon pauses for a moment. Joan stands before her judges
      with folded hands. A smile of gratitude is sketched on her
      face. She lowers her head to conceal her joy. Then Cauchon

                But in as much as you have rashly
                sinned we condemn you . ..

      Joan looks up with an expression of fear and surprise.
      Cauchon continues his reading:

                     ... to perpetual imprisonment,
                     there to eat the bread of sorrow
                     and drink the water of affliction

        Joan stands for a moment, dumbfounded. It is as if she cannot
        grasp the meaning of what she has just heard. She feels as if
        her heart is in her mouth. Her eyes have the expression of a
        hunted animal. Then she hides her face in her hands and
        weeps. Cauchon gives a sign for Joan to be led out. She
        staggers away, leaning on Massieu's arm.


        Joan meets the two soldiers who earlier maintained that she
        had made fools of her judges. They heap abuse upon her, and
        Massieu has to protect her.

154     THE PRISON

        Joan is escorted in by the jailer. He makes her sit down on a
        stool and starts cutting off her hair. Joan is seized by a
        new and dispiriting fear. Although she is in pain, she
        manages to weep inaudibly, sobbing without a sound. When her
        weeping eases off for a moment she whispers:

                     Oh, I am so tired, so tired ...

        But the jailer is concentrating entirely on his work. The
        locks of hair fall on the ground. Joan weeps ceaselessly. The
        events in the churchyard pass in succession before her eyes,
        but now she sees them in relation to one another, from a new
        angle and with a sharper perception. She realizes that it is
        the fear of death which has caused her to panic. She regards
        what she has done as the greatest sin she has ever committed.
        She is unable to forgive herself for having told lies through
        fear of death. Bitter are the tears which well from her eyes,
        from sources almost dried up, as Joan asks herself how she
        may still atone for her sin and repair the damage she has
        done. She turns to the jailer and says with an air of

                     Oh, I am so tired ...

        The jailer mumbles something incomprehensible. Sympathy is
        not to be expected from this quarter. Joan feels like an
        outcast; it is hard to imagine a greater humiliation for a
        woman than to be shorn of her hair. And Joan is a woman.

        At last the cutting operation is concluded.

155   Joan gets up and sits on her bed. She is like somebody who is
      on the verge of collapse from lack of sleep, and who does
      mechanically whatever he is told. Unconsciously she raises
      her hands to her face, shudders and looks at her hands with
      dread, as if they were unclean. She feels ashamed. What has
      she done? She has denied her God. She thinks of Peter's
      denial, of his threefold denial before cock-crow.

156   The jailer, who has left Joan by herself for a moment, now
      returns with a broom. Almost without thinking, and with a
      melancholy smile, Joan follows the broom as it sweeps up her
      hair - hair from Orléans and from Rheims. The jailer sweeps
      it up onto a shovel. He glances round the cell to see if
      there is anything else he can sweep up while he is about it.
      His eye falls on the plaited straw crown, the martyr's crown,
      which has landed in a corner. Joan sees the broom gathering
      in the crown. That too! It is as if in this little incident
      Joan sees a sign from God. She bitterly laments the glory she
      has lost by her abjuration.

      The jailer leaves the cell. Joan sits by herself.   She thinks
      of what she has done. This document signed by her   hand is a
      denial, a denial of God. How she wishes she could   tear it to
      shreds! She is in consternation over the enormity   of her sin.
      Her soul is drowning in remorse. She flushes, she   shakes her
      head violently: No! No! No!

      She strikes her breast. She feels that she is damned
      eternally, eternally abandoned by God. She raises her head in
      bewilderment. She thinks of Hell. She stands up as if to cry
      out in remorse. Then suddenly she recalls the executioner and
      the stake at which her flesh will burn. She collapses again
      on her bed. She sits there in agony, her head hidden in her
      hands. The door opens. The jailer comes in. Now Joan rises,
      having made her decision. She hurries over to the jailer and
      shouts :

                Go and fetch the judges ... I take
                back ... I regret ... I have lied

      She looks at him with tear-stained eyes and gives him a push
      to make him go and tell the prelates. She is seized by a
      deadly fear, she is terrified that a new fit of weakness will
      master her before she can put into effect the decision she
      has just made. She knows that this decision will probably
      lead to her death, but this she feels strong enough to meet.
      And now that the first step has been taken she trembles with
      impatience. She is weary of the struggle and longs to be

157   The spectators of the scene in the churchyard have still not
      returned to the town, but have encamped in a large open space
      where booths selling cider and other drinks have been set up.
      They are grouped in families on the grass, some of them are
      crowding round the booths, and the younger ones are dancing
      and singing to the sound of music.

      The preceding prison scenes alternate with short shots of
      this folklife: dancing bears - acrobats - jugglers - a
      musician - a hobby-horse - a dance-leader - a man with a
      stick over his shoulder and a cask hanging from the stick -
      penny in the bucket - another musician who has fastened
      together a drum and a flute, which he holds in the left hand,
      with the drum-stick in his right. A wild dance - a man
      selling birds - dwarfs - contortionists.

      The following prison scene is interrupted by glimpses of the
      preparations round the bonfire which is to be lit in the
      castle yard: a man carrying firewood to the stake, a broken
      carriage-wheel in the fuel, etc.

158   The jailer now finds Cauchon in conversation with Warwick at
      the entrance to the chapel. The jailer explains briefly what
      has happened in the prison. Warwick and Cauchon exchange
      eloquent glances. At the same moment Loiseleur comes out from
      the chapel. In a few words Cauchon puts him in the picture
      and tells him to assemble some of the judges and notaries.

159   Meanwhile Joan sits waiting impatiently in her prison. It is
      evident that she does not make a sacrifice such as hers
      without doing her nature an injury. She is racked by deep
      despair and her nerves show it. She shivers; her teeth
      chatter. She wrings her hands so that her knuckles are
      completely white.

160   Finally Cauchon enters, followed by various judges and
      notaries. They find the young girl dissolved in tears, her
      face contorted. It is a poor, helpless girl of twenty whom
      they have defeated.

      During the following scene Cauchon exudes an air of
      benevolence and satisfaction. In contrast with his earlier
      demeanor he is now calm and equable. His feelings are
      pleasurable, but it is not a malicious pleasure; he is sure
      of his prey!

      They sit down, and Cauchon asks Joan why she has sent for
      them. With a sob, but also with an expression of
      determination, she answers:

                I have committed a great sin ...

      She has to break off, choked by tears.

161   The judges comfort her and try to alleviate her grief, so
      that she can continue:

                ... I have denied God in order to
                save my life.

      The judges look at one another. Not one of them is so hard-
      hearted as to be untouched by the young woman's genuine

162   Even Cauchon is moved. It is a moment before he speaks. Then
      he says:

                So you still believe that you are
                sent by God?

      Joan nods in confirmation.

163   Again the judges exchange looks. The notary raises his head
      from his book. He examines the judges' faces searchingly,
      looks at Joan and writes in his notes: 'Fatal answer.'
      Cauchon has stood up. However dulled his human feelings may
      be, it still goes against the grain with him to send Joan to
      the stake, even though she herself is asking to die. He says
      in a friendly tone:

                But, Joan, you have admitted in
                front of everybody that you were
                misled by the Devil.

      Joan, who has gradually regained her self-control, does not
      answer immediately. It is only when the judges press her that
      she replies:

                Everything I said was for fear of
                the stake!

      Cauchon holds a whispered consultation with the others, but
      it is clear that they all regard it as wasted effort to
      continue. Cauchon says:

                Have you anything else to tell us?

      Joan shakes her head. The judges rise to go. When Cauchon
      goes into the adjoining room his eye falls on Warwick, who
      has just come up the stairs and now gives Cauchon a look of
      enquiry. Cauchon merely says:

                It is all over!

      Warwick receives the news with no indication of surprise.

      Meanwhile the judges have started to go down the stairs, when
      Cauchon holds the last two back. They are Ladvenu and
      Massieu. Cauchon drops his voice and gives them an order.

164   The two monks go into the cell, where they find Joan sitting
      with her hands in her lap. She is now calm and decided. What
      is she thinking about? About her home in Domrémy - or about
      death? Massieu and Ladvenu remain standing by the door. Joan
      does not see them, so preoccupied is she with her own
      thoughts. They approach with cautious steps, as people do
      involuntarily in the house of death. Ladvenu calls to her.
      She looks up, surprised to see him. Then Ladvenu says:

                Joan, I have come to prepare you
                for death!

      For a moment silence reigns, so deep that Joan's breathing
      can be heard. Then she says in a barely audible voice:

                Now ... already?

      Ladvenu, struggling with the tears which are muffling his
      voice, answers yes. Another long, long silence. Then Joan
      asks, almost as if fearing the answer:

                What kind of death?

      Ladvenu, choked by his feelings, is unable to speak. He makes
      a sign for Massieu to answer on his behalf. Massieu says:

                At the stake!

      A slight shudder passes over Joan's face, but in her soul
      there is no longer any struggle or doubt.

165   Ladvenu, who has now regained his self-control, gives Massieu
      a quiet order. Massieu goes out hurriedly. When he has gone
      Ladvenu says:

                How can you still believe that you
                are sent by God?

      Joan smiles, as if she knows more than other men, and

                His ways are not our ways!

      After a pause she adds:

                Yes, I am His child!

      Ladvenu, moved by this persistent faith, says presently:

                And the great victory?

      Joan looks at him as if amazed at his asking such a stupid
      question. She answers:

                My martyrdom ...

      Ladvenu nods. He looks at her as at a saint descended from
      heaven. Yet he cannot refrain from asking one more question:

                And your release?

      Joan answers with a look of ecstasy in her eyes:

                ... Death ... !

      Her purity and the sincerity of her faith in God are almost
      dazzling to Ladvenu. He gets up. He pities the unhappy Joan,
      and is troubled over this soul which is endangered beyond
      hope of salvation. He turns to Joan and asks her if she wants
      to confess. She accepts his offer gratefully and kneels.

166   Massieu has gone to fetch the Eucharist. A procession of
      priests, wearing surplices and stoles, and carrying lights in
      their hands, comes out of the chapel and goes in the
      direction of the castle yard, singing litanies.

167   Everyone in the castle yard kneels; the women are in tears.
      To every entreaty the priests answer:

                Pray for her!

168   Presently the procession arrives at Joan's cell, and she
      prepares to receive the Eucharist. Ladvenu takes the
      consecrated Host in his hands, shows it to Joan and says:

                Do you believe that this is the
                Body of Christ?

      Joan receives the Body of Christ with touching meekness. She
      weeps copiously as once again she finds Him from whom she has
      so long been kept apart. In the fullness of her heart she
      raises her voice and offers to Jesus prayers of a childlike
      gentleness and moving quality. The cell door stands open.

169   In the ante-room Loiseleur has come into view. He hears Joan
      talking with her Savior and is deeply moved. Even this man's
      eyes well over with tears. He is afraid he will be unable to
      stifle his emotion and withdraws.

170   The solemn ceremony is over. The monks leave.

171   The jailer comes in with a coat which Joan is to wear.

172   Meanwhile rumors are circulating among the crowd in the area
      behind the churchyard that Joan has withdrawn her abjuration.
      Now they set out in swarms for the castle, pressing over the
      lowered drawbridge leading into the castle yard, where the
      English soldiers control the flow in such a way that they
      keep the invaders concentrated in one corner of the yard.
      Through the gate hundreds of curious sightseers can be seen
      climbing up into trees and standing on the parapets of the
      bridge in the hope of seeing a tiny fragment of the
      unaccustomed spectacle.

173   In between, scenes from the prison are shown. Joan is wearing
      a coat that comes down to her feet, which are bare. Her
      earlier calm seems to have disappeared. She prays and weeps
      incessantly. Ladvenu and Massieu, who have returned to fetch
      her, lead her away.

174   Joan has arrived at the castle yard. In her coat she appears
      to many of those present as a vision from God. An old woman
      approaches, hands Joan a cup of milk, weeps and kneels. The
      poor child, who is herself in need of comfort, offers the
      woman such comfort as she can, but the English soldiers put
      an end to this scene.

175   The stake is erected in the middle of the castle yard.*** The
      fuel is piled up on a foundation of stone. The post to which
      the victim is to be tied projects over the fuel. The
      intention is for thousands of people to witness with their
      own eyes that the Maid has really been burnt. A notice-board
      is fastened to the stake, with the following inscription:
      'Heretic, Relapsed, Apostate, Idolatress.'

      Further away there is a platform for the judges and the
      English nobility; another is reserved for the preacher and
      for spectators.

176   When Joan has taken her place at the stake one of the judges,
      Nicolas Midi, stands and begins his sermon:

                In the name of the Lord, amen!

177   For Joan it is as if his voice has reached her from far away.
      She weeps incessantly, as she watches the executioner's final
      preparations; she sees him bending over

178   His coal-bucket; later she sees him, with a knife in his
      mouth, uncoiling the rope which is to fasten her to the

179   Nicolas Midi continues his sermon:

                ... Like a rotten member we cut you
                off from the body of the Church.

      The preacher turns to face Joan directly; she listens
      attentively and gives an unconscious nod. At the same moment
      she sees a flock of doves taking off and flying into the
      heavens. Then Nicolas Midi ends his short address:

                Joan, go forth in peace ... the
                Church is unable to protect you!

      Joan, who retains to the end her respect for the Church's
      servants, inclines politely and gratefully in his direction.

180   In a loud voice she prays:

                Dear God, I accept my death
                willingly and gladly ...

      Her face becomes more serious and more anguished; she

                ... but I entreat Thee, if Thou
                lovest me, that my suffering may be
                short ...

181   Her lament, mild but strongly spoken, rings through the
      hushed square. Everyone holds his breath to hear the
      condemned Joan's last words; every eye turns towards her and
      watches for her smallest movement. They are deeply affected
      by the simplicity she shows, face to face with death. Many
      are in tears, even some of the English soldiers.

182   At the end of her prayer she says to Ladvenu, with tears in
      her eyes:

                Where will I be tonight?

      Ladvenu exhorts her to have faith in God: with the help of
      the Almighty she will attain her place in Paradise. The
      English soldiers grow impatient, and one of their officers
      approaches the platform and says:

                Look here, priest, are you going to
                be all day?

183   Ladvenu insists on his right to prepare the young woman for
      death. And he says to Massieu, who is bringing him a small

                Joan wishes to have a cross with
                her when she dies!

184   Ladvenu instructs Massieu to fetch one from the chapel, and
      with the little missal in his hand he reads the prayers for
      those under sentence of death.

      One of the English soldiers has heard Ladvenu's words to
      Massieu. He extracts two bits of wood from a faggot lying
      ready for the bonfire, and joins them so that they form a
      modest little cross.

185   Joan, who has followed his movements, is touched. She takes
      the cross lovingly and reverently, and covers it with kisses.

186   The English captain is now losing patience, and orders the
      executioner to do his duty.

187   Massieu returns with the processional cross. He shows it to
      Joan; she is inexpressibly happy as she takes it with both
      hands, kisses it with tears in her eyes, and addresses ardent
      prayers to it.

188   Now her eye falls on the executioner, who has climbed up on
      the other side of her in order to tie her to the stake. He
      drops the rope; she picks it up. She is bound brutally to the

      Ladvenu remains standing. During Joan's prayer he remains
      holding the crucifix in front of her, so that throughout she
      can see her Savior. When the executioner has secured Joan he
      descends. Ladvenu continues to speak words of comfort to

      All around her are now in tears. Loiseleur weeps. Even
      Cauchon weeps. The executioner has made his final

189   In his hand he holds the flaming torch which is to set the
      bonfire alight.

190   Joan suddenly catches sight of the fire, but her first
      thought is not for herself: she thinks only of Ladvenu, who
      seems to have forgotten the danger he is exposed to. She
      shouts to him:

                The fire! Get down!

191   But she implores him urgently to continue right up to the end
      holding the cross raised before her eyes.

192   The flames crackle and climb higher.

193   Suddenly a deathly hush descends on the square. A dull
      silence. Only the crackle of the flames and the mumbled
      prayers of the priests can be heard. Oppressed by this
      stillness, some of the spectators fall on their knees, and
      others follow their example. Many of them light wax candles.

194   The flames leap from one faggot to another ... they advance
      in little jumps over cavities and gaps in the fuel. Sparks
      fly, smoke whirls up; through the smoke, which occasionally
      conceals Joan, can be seen part of her

195   Face, which is raised to heaven, and her mouth, which is
      whispering prayers. Then her eyes seek Christ, whom Ladvenu
      continues to hold up towards her; Christ who, like herself,
      is enveloped in smoke.

196   Through the smoke she sees the executioner stirring the fire,

197   And a soldier on his knees trying to get near enough to the
      bonfire to throw the martyr's crown on it.

198   She also sees Massieu, who is sprinkling holy water on the
      bonfire from his stoup.

199   Meanwhile the judges have risen. The clerics are not allowed
      to witness the actual execution, but their departure is in
      the nature of a flight. The eyes of most of them are filled
      with tears. They all cross themselves as they withdraw.

200   The English soldiers force a way for them through the crowd,
      but as the priests approach the spectators the latter draw
      back of their own accord to avoid contact with them. On every
      face you can read contempt, in every quarter you can hear the
      traitors being taunted as such.

201   Suddenly the first tongues of flame lick round Joan's feet.
      She squirms. The things of this earth are vanishing, and
      Joan's thoughts are now only of the King of Heaven. In spite
      of the pain and terror she does not forget her Christ -
      indeed it is as if, with every second that passes, she is
      coming steadily closer to Him.


      she begins to scream in her long death-struggle.

202   The weeping crowds repeat the name of Jesus.

203   Innumerable tongues of flame, growing constantly in size,
      number and fierceness, are now fanning round her.

204   The rope binding her to the stake begins to burn.

205   Joan is frantic with terror:


      she screams in her agony.

206   The echo repeats her cry in the sad and silent square. The
      bystanders pray in chorus, while the women weep and wail:

                Intercede for us ...

      Others continue:

                ... now and in our last hour.

207   Joan's coat is already in flames, consumed by the fire as far
      as the knees. Her feet are burning.

208   But the executioner continues piling fuel on the bonfire. An
      ominous, infernal silence prevails.

209   Joan screams:

                Jesus!   Jesus!

210   But the bystanders, who during these final scenes stand as if
      paralyzed by the fire and by Joan's cries, are seized by a
      mood compounded of fear and ecstasy. Outbursts of anger and
      indignation against the oppressors can already be heard. The
      English soldiers take up a threatening posture.

211   The flames climb steadily higher.

212   The notice-board fastened over Joan's head goes up in flames
      and falls into the bonfire.

213   A last vision is caught of Joan's face, contorted in terror.
      She pronounces once more the name of Jesus, lets her head
      slump and gives up the ghost. The tumult grows among the
      bystanders, clenched fists are raised in the air.

214   Threatening words can be heard. Then somebody in the crowd
      gives free expression to what everybody is thinking and

                You have burnt a saint!

      The cry is taken up, until it is heard from every throat.

215   The rope fastening Joan to the stake has burnt through and
      falls in ashes. Joan's body totters and sinks into the

216   At a sign from Warwick the soldiers pursue the mob out of the
      castle yard with thrusts of their lances, through the gate
      and over the drawbridge, which is then raised. Many fall
      victim to the soldiers' brutality or are trampled to death.

217   The smoke rises in a column, concealing Joan.

218   On Warwick's orders the executioner rakes through the fire.
      Normally no trace of Joan should remain - but what is this?
      Joan's heart is undamaged. He shows it to Warwick and pours
      oil on the flames, but still the heart will not catch fire.
      He tries in vain, with the help of sulphur and coal, to make
      it burn: the flame leaps up, guided by his expert hand, but
      when the fire subsides again the executioner finds the heart
      still intact. Convinced that he is witnessing a manifest
      miracle, he looks questioningly at Warwick, who answers

                Throw this lot in the Seine!

219   In his anguish the executioner falls on his knees before
      Ladvenu, terrified that he will be condemned for having burnt
      a saint.

                As the sun went down Joan's heart
                was sunk in the river, the heart
                which from that time became the
                heart of France, just as she
                herself was the incarnation of the
                eternal France.

Passion of Joan of Arc, The

Writers :   Joseph Delteil  Carl Theodor Dreyer
Genres :   Drama

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